SHOULD THE CHURCH TEACH TITHING?
16. Acts 15 and 21: Compromise Divided the Jerusalem Church
Should the Church Teach Tithing?
BLOGSPOT BLOG LIST SINCE 2005
SCHREINER, THOMAS SBC
SEARCH INDEX
RENDER TO CAESAR
ARTICLES
FIRSTFRUITS WERE NEVER TITHES
LETTER TO YOUR PASTOR ABOUT TITHING
BUY BOOKS AND VIDEO
BAPTIST ERRORS
ENDORSEMENTS
REBUTTALS OF TITHE-TEACHERS
Bafcley, William
RUSSELL EARL KELLY, PHD
THEOLOGIANS AND HISTORIANS WHO AGREE
INTRODUCTION
1. Origin and Definition of Tithing
2. Genesis 14:20 Abraham, Melchizedek, Arab Custom and Tithing
3. Genesis 28:22 Jacob's Bargain With God
4. Numbers 18: The Obscure Statute/Ordinance of Tithing
5. Leviticus 27:30-34 Tithing and Holy and Most Holy Statutes
6. Tithes Replaced Land Inheritance
7. How Many Tithes? 10%, 20%, or 23 1/3rd%?
8. Deuteronomy 12 and 14: Strange Facts about Tithing
9. The Poor and Jesus Did Not Tithe
10. Kings, Tithes and Taxes: Levites with Political Jobs
11. 2nd Chronicles 31 Explains Malachi
12. Nehemiah 10-13: Historical Context of Malachi
13a. Commentary on Malachi 1 and 2: Cursing the Priests for Stealing
13b. Malachi 3 and 4
14. Matthew 23:23; Luke 11:42 Supporting the Old Covenant and Its Interpreters
15. Luke 18:12 A Pharisee's Boast about Tithing
16. Acts 15 and 21: Compromise Divided the Jerusalem Church
17. Hebrews 8; 2nd Corinthians 3; A Better New Covenant; MARTIN LUTHER
18. The Mosaic Law and the "Law" of Christ; MATT 5:17-19
19. Hebrews 7: Extremely Important
20. Ephesians 2:14-16; Colossians 2:13-17: Law Ordinances Ended
21. 1 Peter 2:9-10: Your Priesthood Abolishes Tithing
22. 1 Corinthians 9: Using Christian Liberty to Refuse Christian Rights [2007]
23. 1 Corinthians 16: Principles for Giving to the Needy
24. 1 Timothy 5:17: Worthy of Double Honor
25. Miscellaneous Objections
26. Chafer and Walvoord on New Covenant Giving
27. 2 Corinthians 8 and 9: Principles of Grace Giving
28. Acts 20:16-35: Paul's Sermon is Not Preached
29. Secular History of Tithing
30. Tithing Principles for Tithe-Teaching Churches
31. Spreading the Gospel
BIBLIOGRAPHY AND PAGE #
58% of Evangelical Leaders Reject Tithing, April 2011
140 QUESTIONS FOR TITHE ADVOCATES
1873: TITHING FIRST SUGGESTED IN USA
20% OF SBC PASTORS AND 31% OF OTHER PASTORS AGREE
ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF THIS BOOK
AKIN, DANIEL, PRESIDENT SEBTS
ALCORN, RANDY
Amazon.com Reviews
ANTI-TITHING VIDEOS
ASSEMBLY OF GOD TITHING STATEMENT
BACKLASH AGAINST TITHING, WALL STREET JOURNAL
BAKER, ROBERT A: SBC HISTORIAN
BAKER'S EVANGELICAL DICTIONARY OF THE BIBLE
BAPTIST STATEMENTS OF FAITH AGREED UNTIL 1963
BLACK, DAVID ALAN, TH. D.; SBC THEOLOGIAN
BLOGGING CONDEMNED BY GEORGIA BAPTIST LEADERS
BOOKIDEAS: PROFESSIONAL BOOK REVIEW
BROWN, TOM: WOF MINISTRIES
BURKETT, LARRY AND DAYTON, HOWARD; CROWN
CALVIN, JOHN: TITHING
CAMERON, BARRY: TITHING ABCs
CARSON, D A; REBUTTAL ON TITHING
CARTOON
CBS TRANSCRIPT AND COMMENTS
CHARISMA MAGAZINE 3-11-08
CHEUNG, VINCENT: MALACHI
CHRISTIAN TODAY, TITHING, 2016
CHRISTIAN TORAH DOCTRINE
CHURCH OF SCOTLAND RECOMMENDED READING
COME LET US GROW TOGETHER: TITHING
CONNER, KEVIN J; MELCHIZEDEK
COPELAND, KENNETH: TITHING REBUTTAL
CORBAN AND FIRSTFRUIT-TITHING
CROTEAU, DAVID, PHD
CROWN MINISTRIES 2012
DANA, H E: SOUTHERN BAPTIST HISTORIAN
DEJONG, PAUL: TITHING
DOLLAR, CREFLO: TITHING REBUTAL
Et essay: Tiende er ikke en kristen lære
Dizimar não é uma doutrina cristã
Un ensayo: el diezmar no es una doctrina cristiana
EVANS, TONY
EZEKIEL'S TEMPLE: NO TITHING
FLOYD, RONNIE
GEORGE, WILLIE; REBUTTAL
GOD'S PLAN OF SALVATION
GRACE-GIVING CHURCHES
GRAHAM, BILLY: TITHING
GRAHAM, FRANKLIN: SALARY-TITHING
GREIMANN, DEAN ON TITHING
HAGEE, JOHN
HANNESSY, SHAWN, TITHING
HAYFORD, JACK; TITHING
HEMPHILL, KENNETH, TITHING; SBC SPOKESMAN
KEN HEMPHILL AND BOBBY EKLUND
HINN, BENNY: TITHING
HOUSTON, BRIAN: HILLSONG, TITHING
HOW TO BECOME A PROSPERITY PREACHER
If We Don't Preach Tithing, How Do We Pay the Church Bills?
JAKES, TD; 49 LIES TOLD ABOUT TITHING
JEREMIAH, DAVID: TITHING
JEWISH TITHING CONCEPTS
JOYNER, RICK: TITHING REBUTTAL
KENDALL, R T: TITHING
KENNEDY, JAMES, PHD: TITHING
KOSTENBERGER, ANDREAS: 12-4-2007
"LAW" IN THE BIBLE
LAWLESS, CHUCK ON TITHING
LINKS: SITES AND BOOKS
LIST OF TITHING OPPONENTS THROUGHOUT HISTORY
LIST OF UNSCRIPTURAL BAPTIST TITHING ERRORS
LONDON DEBATE: POINT BY POINT COMMENTS
LONDON DEBATE, MAR 30, 2011 TRANSCRIPT
LONDON TV DEBATE DETAILS PLUS
LUTHER, MARTIN REJECTED TITHING: 1525
MALACHI 3:10 HAS BEEN MISINTERPRETED
MALACHI 3:10: THE TEST-GOD TITHE MYTH
MARINELLI, CHAD, WORD OF FAITH
MARTIN, ERNEST L; THE TITHING DILEMMA
MATTHEW 5:17-19
MAXWELL, JOHN C
MELCHIZEDEK: WAS HE A PAGAN GENTILE?
MEYER, ALLAN: TITHING
MONEY WITH GENTILE IMAGES WAS BANNED
MORRIS, ROBERT: Jesus is the Tithe
MORMON-LDS TITHING
NORTH, GARY COVENANTAL TITHE
NORTH, GARY PERSPECTIVES ON TITHING
NORTH, GARY WIKIPEDIA
OWEN, JOHN --DID NOT TEACH TITHING
PAGAN CHRISTIANITY: BOOK REVIEW
PINK, A W: TITHING
PIPER, JOHN: TITHING
POEMS BY H. K. PYWELL
POSITION PAPER FORCES EMPLOYEES TO TEACH TITHING
PREACHERS, EVANGELISTS AND THEOLOGIANS SPEAK OUT
PRINCE, JOSEPH
PROSPERITY GOSPEL: AVANZINI PLUS
PROSPERITY GOSPEL: Jones and Woodbridge
PROSPERITY GOSPEL REFUTATION
RAMSEY, DAVE: TITHING
RHODE ISLAND BAPTISTS: 1638-1770S
RICH PREACHERS WHO TEACH TITHING
ROBERTSON, NORMAN: TITHING
ROBINSON, VON ON TITHING
ROGERS, ADRIAN: Tithing Rebuttal
ROGERS, ROD: PASTOR DRIVEN STEWARDSHIP
ROSS, CHARLES: TITHING
SBC CHURCH WANTS YOUR BANK ROUTING NUMBER FOR TITHE
SBC FINANCIAL ABUSE
SBC SCHOLARS: THEOLOGIANS AND HISTORIANS WHO AGREE
SCHREINER, THOMAS R, PHD, SBTS, TITHING
SHAFFER, GLENN ON TITHING, RUSS KELLY
SIX MOST QUOTED LIES ABOUT TITHING
SOUTHERN BAPTIST ENCYCLOPEDIA: TITHING
SOUTHERN BAPTIST TITHING BROCHURES
SPROUL, R C: TITHING REBUTTAL
SPURGEON, CHARLES H
ST PETERSBURG TIMES
STOREHOUSE TITHING ERROR
SUBMISSION THEOLOGY
SUNDAY SCHOOL LESSON ON TITHING; JANUARY 28, 2007
SWAZILAND, POVERTY, AND PROSPERITY PREACHERS
SWINDOLL, CHARLES (CHUCK): TITHING
TBN: THE CROUCHES: TITHING
TEXT INDEX FOR 2007 EDITION
THEOLOGICAL DOUBLE-TALK
TIMELINE: BAPTIST, SBC and REK BOOK
TITHE MAPS IN 18TH CENTURY EUROPE
TITHES: NEW ADVENT CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA
TITHING ABUSE STORIES
TITHE AND OFFERING SCRIPTURES.COM/LEON
WALL STREET JOURNAL: RUSSELL KELLY LETTER
WARREN, RICK ON TITHING
WARREN, RICK: TITHING 2015
WE ARE NOT ALONE: VERY STRONG SUPPORT
Web Sites Which Discuss This Book and Tithing
WESLEY, JOHN
Where in the Bible Were Tithes Abolished?
WIDOW'S MITE
WOODWARD, GEOFF: TITHING
WYCLIFFE DICTIONARY OF THEOLOGY; F F BRUCE
WYTSMA, KEN: TITHING REBUTTAL
YOUNG, ED: TITHING REBUTTAL

An Exhaustive Examination of "Tithe," "Tithes" and "Tithing"

Click Photo to Buy from Amazon.com
tithingbookcove.jpg
From the book.

Should the Church Teach Tithing?
A Theologian's Conclusions about a Taboo Doctrine
Russell Earl Kelly, PHD
tithing-russkelly.com
russkellyphd@yahoo.com

Video Essay

London video tithing debate

Acts 15 and 21 are crucial documents relating to tithing because they described the struggle of the first church council to deal with how the Law should apply to Jews and Gentiles. The terrible compromise kept Jewish Christians under the full jurisdiction of the Law with its continued links to the Jerusalem Temple and, of course, tithing to the Temple (not to the church). HOWEVER, it released Gentile Christians from any jurisdiction of the Law whatsoever. Therefore, no part of the Law, including tithing, was ever placed on Gentile believers.

   

Paul was right! The Jerusalem church under James and Peter were wrong! The compromise James (and the church) declared caused a split in the early church which ultimately led to the death, although centuries later, of this particular legalistic Jewish-Christian church which soon rejected Paul and all of his writings.

Acts 15:1 And certain men which came down from Judea taught the brethren, and said, Unless you are circumcised after the manner of Moses, you cannot be saved.

 

After returning to Antioch in Syria from his first missionary journey, an unauthorized delegation of Christian Pharisees from the Jerusalem church went to Antioch to “supplement” the teachings of Paul and Barnabas. They insisted that Gentile believers must be circumcised according to the Mosaic Law in order to be saved. For them, to be circumcised meant to keep all of the Mosaic Law.

Acts 15:2 When therefore Paul and Barnabas had no small dissension and disputation with them, they determined that Paul and Barnabas, and certain other of them, should go up to Jerusalem unto the apostles and elders about this question.

 

After a heated discussion about the place of the Mosaic Law in Christian doctrine produced no satisfactory agreement, Paul and Barnabas were pressured to continue the discussion in the Jerusalem church.

Acts 15:5 But there rose up certain of the sect of the Pharisees which believed, saying, That it was needful to circumcise them, and to command them to keep the law of Moses.

 

The Jewish-Pharisee-Christians within the Jerusalem church had maintained all of their ties to Judaism and the Temple. Evidently (from chapter 21) so did the rest of the church. They wanted the church to command all believers, both Jew and Gentile, to be fully under the jurisdiction of the Mosaic Law and fully obey its teachings. They were Jews first, Pharisees second, and Christians third.

Acts 15:6 And the apostles and elders came together to consider this matter.

 

In approximately A.D. 52, twenty years after Calvary, this foundational church in Jerusalem had still not confronted the issue of the Law as it relates to Gentiles. These Jewish-Christians still felt comfortable in simply adding Christian teachings alongside all of their Jewish traditions. Most likely the Gentile Christians within its membership had been circumcised and the issue had not emerged. Now that Paul had returned with testimony of many hundreds of uncircumcised believing Gentiles, the issue came to a crisis—something must be decided.

Acts 15:7 And when there had been much disputing, Peter rose up, and said unto them, Men and brethren, you know how that a good while ago God made choice among us, that the Gentiles by my mouth should hear the word of the gospel, and believe.

Acts 15:8 And God, who knows the hearts, bare them witness, giving them the Holy Spirit, even as he did unto us;

Acts 15:9 And put no difference between us and them, purifying their hearts by faith.

Acts 15:10 Now therefore why do you tempt God, to put a yoke upon the neck of the disciples, which neither our fathers nor we were able to bear?

Acts 15:11 But we believe that through the grace of the Lord Jesus Christ we shall be saved, even as they.

 

The Apostle Peter, second in leadership to James, reminded the church that he had personally witnessed the Gentiles receiving the Holy Spirit simply through faith and apart from keeping the Law. He concluded that, since both Jews and Gentiles received the Holy Spirit through faith, then the Law did not function as a method of salvation. Therefore, placing Gentile-Christians under the yoke of the Law would be equivalent to tempting God! Jews and Gentiles are saved through grace, and not through Law. I ask, is it not logical to say that attempting to place believers under the yoke of tithing is also tempting God?

Acts 15:12 Then all the multitude kept silence, and gave audience to Barnabas and Paul, declaring what miracles and wonders God had performed among the Gentiles by them.

 

Just in case anybody thought that God would not bless Gentiles who had not committed to keeping the Mosaic Law, Paul next told many great experiences of God’s blessings on uncircumcised Gentiles.

Acts 15:19 Wherefore my sentence is, that we do not trouble them, which from among the Gentiles are turned to God:

Acts 15:20 But that we write unto them, that they abstain from pollution of idols, and from fornication, and from things strangled, and from blood.

Acts 15:21 For Moses of old time has in every city them that preach him, being read in the synagogues every sabbath day.

 

After reminding the Jewish Christians that the Bible prophesied that Gentiles would become part of God’s people (vv. 13-18) James (the church leader) declared that the Jewish Christians should “not trouble” Gentile Christians by expecting them to obey the Mosaic Law. THIS IS EXTREMELY IMPORTANT! While these Jewish Christians did NOT understand that they also were no longer bound to observe the Law, they DID correctly conclude that the Gentile Christians were NOT bound to keep any of it! Friends, THIS INCLUDES TITHING! If these Jewish Christians were tithing at all (and I think that they were), they were tithing TO THE TEMPLE because they incorrectly considered themselves still bound to observe all of the Law.

 

This decision was a divisive and dangerous compromise. It kept Jewish Christians under the Law by mixing Law and grace, while it kept Gentile Christians outside of the Law with no mixture of Law and grace. When preachers declare with Paul in Romans 3:21 and 22 that the righteousness of God has been revealed through faith “apart from the Law” and then add back items of the Law (such as tithing), it is these preachers who become the divisive ones in the church!

 

The four prohibitions placed on Gentile Christians in verse 20 were not placed on them because of the Mosaic Law, but because they were particularly offensive to Jewish Christians. They relate more to pagan idol worship practices than to biblical prohibitions.

Acts 15:22 Then it pleased the apostles and elders, with the whole church, to send chosen men of their own company to Antioch with Paul and Barnabas; namely, Judas surnamed Barsabas, and Silas, chief men among the brethren:

 

Either the vast majority of the church had voted and completely silenced the Jewish Pharisees who began the discussion, or the Jewish Pharisees temporarily walked out at this point. Also, notice that the church leaders did not make the decision apart from consultation and agreement with the church body.

Acts 15:23-29 And they wrote letters by them after this manner;

“The apostles and elders and brethren send greeting unto the brethren which are of the Gentiles in Antioch and Syria and Cilicia. Forasmuch as we have heard, that certain which went out from us have troubled you with words, SUBVERTING YOUR SOULS, saying, You MUST be circumcised, and KEEP THE LAW: to whom we gave no such commandment. It seemed good unto us, being assembled with one accord, to send chosen men to you with our beloved Barnabas and Paul, Men that have hazarded their lives for the name of our Lord Jesus Christ.”

 

 How plain can it be! The apostles, elders, and church body “gave no such commandment” that Gentiles Christians “must—keep the Law.” Expecting non-Jews to observe the Law was comparable to “subverting your souls.” They even put it in writing so that Paul could show it to the churches he visited. This was a 100% decision, “with one accord,” of all present at the first recorded church council! Yet 21st century churches have reversed this letter and are more and more commanding church members to “keep the Law” is, at least tithing!

Acts 15:27-29 “We have therefore sent Judas and Silas, who shall also tell you the same things by mouth. For it seemed good to the Holy Spirit, and to us, to lay upon you no greater burden than these necessary things; That you abstain from food offered to idols, and from blood, and from things strangled, and from fornication: from which if you keep yourselves, you shall do well. Farewell.”

 

 Just in case the church in Antioch might think that Paul forged this letter, the church in Jerusalem sent two of its members to personally verify that the letter was authentic. A prophetic utterance inspired by the Holy Spirit may have added God’s blessings. For a second closing to the letter, “no greater burden” is repeated.” The Gentile Christian burden does NOT include Law observance! I wonder if the repeated emphasis is for our generation.

Acts 15:30-32 So when they were dismissed, they came to Antioch. And when they had gathered the multitude together, they delivered the epistle. Which when they had read, they rejoiced for the consolation. And Judas and Silas, being prophets also themselves, exhorted the brethren with many words, and confirmed them.

 

When the Gentile Christians heard that they were not expected to be burdened by observance of the Mosaic Law, they “rejoiced for the consolation” it brought. Yet today believers are not allowed to rejoice when they are told of the curse of the Law of Malachi 3:8-10. Finally, in their office of prophet, this truth of “no greater burden” was confirmed by God through Judas and Silas. What more plain teaching should we require from God’s Word!

Acts 21:17 And when we were come to Jerusalem, the brethren received us gladly.

 

The context is approximately A.D. 60, eight years after the church council of Acts 15 and at the conclusion of Paul’s third and final missionary journey. We know from Romans, Galatians, and Second Corinthians that the Jewish-Pharisee-Christians from the Jerusalem church who had initially caused trouble for Paul in Acts 15 had followed him from church to church throughout the years. They had charged Paul with failing to instruct Christians to observe the Mosaic Law.

Acts 21:18-19 The next day Paul went in with us unto James and all the elders were present. And when he had greeted them, he declared particularly what things God had done among the Gentiles by his ministry.

 

Paul reported the success of his missionary efforts to the leaders of the church in Jerusalem. Notice that James is still the head of the church.

Acts 21:20 And when they heard it, they glorified the Lord, and said to him, You see, brother, how many thousands of Jews there are which believe; and they are all zealous of the law:

 

THIS TEXT IS EXTREMELY IMPORTANT! It is apparent that the Jewish-Christian-Pharisees had eventually taken over the church in Jerusalem and had deceived James along with them. What a pity! Almost thirty years after Calvary the Jewish Christians in Jerusalem were STILL totally committed to observing the Mosaic Law! Concerning tithing, there is absolutely no way to understand this statement without concluding that these Christians were still paying tithes TO THE TEMPLE. There is no legitimate way to even imply that they were zealously observing all of the Law—except tithing—or else paid tithes to the church leaders! Such is absurd! Thus, thirty years after Calvary, there was no such thing as a doctrine of tithing to support church leadership!

Acts 21:21 And they are informed of you, that you teach all the Jews which are among the Gentiles to forsake Moses, saying that they ought not to circumcise their children, neither to walk after the customs.

Acts 21:22 What are we to do next? The assembly will certainly come together and they will hear that you have come back.

   

The church leaders were not concerned about what Paul had been telling Gentile Christians about the Law. They thought that he had deliberately told Jewish Christians that they also were no longer required to live in obedience to the Law. Paul could not bring himself to teach the divisive compromise reached in Acts 15. Since it is good enough for Gentiles to be freed from the Law through faith, then it should be good enough for Jews also. For Paul the spontaneous obedience of “the law of the Spirit of life in Jesus Christ” “because the love of God is shed abroad in our hearts by the Holy Spirit” was more than sufficient for the new creation in Christ (Rom. 8:2; 5:5).

Acts 21:23-25 Therefore do this that we say to you: We have four men which have a vow on them. Take them, purify yourself with them [in the temple], and pay their [temple] expenses, that they may shave their heads, and all may know that those things, of which they were informed concerning you are nothing; but that you yourself also walk orderly, and keep the law. As touching the Gentiles which believe, we have written and concluded that they observe no such thing, except only that they keep themselves from things offered to idols, and from blood, and from strangled, and from fornication.

 

Carefully read these verses again. Stop and think very seriously! Do not miss the full impact of these verses on tithing! A.D. 60—almost 30 years AFTER Calvary and the CHRISTIAN church leaders are commanding Paul to GO TO THE TEMPLE, PURIFY YOURSELF, OFFER SACRIFICES, AND CONVINCE THE REST OF THE CHURCH THAT HE IS FAITHFULLY OBSERVING THE MOSAIC LAW! I ask you very simply—do you HONESTLY believe that this church was teaching its members to pay TITHES TO THE CHURCH?

 

They were a compromising divisive legalistic church that only had the Gospel half-right. At least they understood that the Gentile Christians were never obligated to observe the Mosaic Law (including paying tithes). While this same church gave sacrificial freewill offerings fanatically in Acts 2:44-46, thirty (30) years later it is primarily giving to support the Jewish Temple system and could not possibly be teaching tithing to the church. Acts 2:44-46 is not an example of tithing because they still worshipped in the Temple. This would have not been allowed if they had stopped financially supporting the Temple. The were still Jews first at that time.

Acts 21:26-27 Then Paul took the men, and the next day purifying himself with them entered into the temple, to signify the accomplishment of the days of purification, until that an offering should be offered for every one of them. And when the seven days were almost ended, the Jews which were of Asia, when they saw him in the temple, stirred up all the people, and laid hands on him, Crying out, Men of Israel, help: This is the man, who teaches all men every where against the people, and the law, and this place, and further brought Greeks also into the temple, and has polluted this holy place. (For they had seen before with him in the city Trophimus an Ephesian, whom they supposed that Paul had brought into the temple.)

 

In First Corinthians 9:20 Paul had written, “And unto the Jews I became as a Jew, that I might gain the Jews; to them that are under the law, as under the law, that I might gain them that are under the law.” Unfortunately, when one attempts to “become all things to all people,” to others, at least, he might appear to be “nothing to nobody” by playing all sides of the issue. Paul had taught the truth and left it up to believing Jews to draw their own conclusions. Now his own lifestyle in such matters (at least to others) brought him back to making a sacrifice in the Temple in order to appease the divisive church leaders. (How else can we honestly explain verse 26?) When the (non-Christian) Jews recognized him, the accusations quickly mounted.

SUMMARY: The Apostle Paul was almost beaten to death outside of the Jerusalem Temple. He was arrested, sent to prison, and later to Rome—all because the mostly Jewish Christian church in Jerusalem had COMMANDED him to enter the Temple, offer sacrifices, and continue observing all of the Mosaic Law. Today, almost twenty centuries later, there are Christian churches and denominations who are again COMMANDING church members to observe that same Mosaic Law. Whether this takes the form of Sabbatarianism, unclean foods, commanded church festivals, or tithing—it is still wrong and divisive.

.......

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

.