MARTIN; August 27, 1525
HOW CHRISTIANS SHOULD REGARD MOSES
The Law of Moses
Binds Only the Jews and Not the Gentiles. An Introduction to Moses.
Here the Law of Moses has its place. It is no longer binding on
us because it was given only to the people of Israel.
And Israel accepted this law for itself and its descendants, while the Gentiles
NATRUAL LAW: To be sure, the Gentiles have certain laws in common with the Jews,
such as these: there is one God, no one is to do wrong to another, no one is to commit adultery or murder or steal, and others
like them. This is written by
nature into their hearts; they did not hear it straight from heaven as the Jews did. This is why this entire text does not
pertain to the Gentiles. …
But we will not have this sort of thing. We would rather not preach again for
the rest of our life than to let Moses return and to let Christ be torn out of our hearts. We will not have Moses as ruler or lawgiver
any longer. Indeed God himself will not have it either. Moses was an intermediary solely for the Jewish people. It was to them that he gave the law.
We must therefore silence the mouths of those factious spirits who say, "Thus says Moses,"
etc. Here you simply reply: Moses
has nothing to do with us. If I were to accept Moses in one commandment, I would have to accept the entire Moses. Thus the consequence would be that if I accept Moses as master,
then I must have myself circumcised, wash my clothes in the Jewish way, eat and drink and dress thus and so, and observe all
So, then, we will neither observe nor accept Moses. Moses is dead. His rule ended
when Christ came. He is of no further service.
TEN COMMANDMENTS: That Moses does not bind
the Gentiles can be proved from Exodus 20:1, where God himself speaks, "I am the Lord your God, who brought you out of
the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage." This text makes it clear that even the Ten Commandments do not pertain to us. For God never led us out of Egypt, but only the Jews.
sectarian spirits want to saddle us with Moses and all the commandments. We will just skip that. We will regard Moses as a
teacher, but we will not regard
him as our lawgiver - unless he agrees with both the New Testament and the natural law. Therefore it is clear enough that Moses is the lawgiver of the Jews and not of
the Gentiles. He has given the Jews a sign whereby they should lay hold of God, when they call upon him as the God who brought
them out of Egypt. The Christians have a different sign, whereby
they conceive of God as the One who gave his Son, etc.
SABBATH: Again one can prove it from the third commandment that
Moses does not pertain to Gentiles and Christians. For Paul [Col. 2:16] and the New Testament [Matt. 12:1-12; John 5:16; 7:22-23; 9:14-16]
abolish the Sabbath, to show us that the Sabbath was given to the Jews alone, for whom it is a stern commandment. The prophets
referred to it too, that the Sabbath of the Jews would be abolished. For Isaiah says in the last chapter, "When the
Savior comes, then such will be the time, one Sabbath after the other, one month after the other," etc. [Isa. 66:23].
This is as though he were trying to say, "It will be the Sabbath every day, and the people will be such that they make
no distinction between days. For in the New Testament the Sabbath is annihilated as regards the crude external observance,
for every day is a holy day," etc.
TEN COMMANDMENTS: Now if anyone confronts you with Moses
and his commandments, and wants to compel you to keep them, simply answer, "Go to the Jews with your Moses; I am no Jew. Do not entangle me with Moses. If I accept Moses in
one respect [Paul tells the Galatians in chapter 5:3], then I am obligated to keep the entire law." For not one little
period in Moses pertains to us.
THINGS ABOUT MOSES:
FIRST: DISMISS WHAT WAS FOR ISRAEL ONLY.
TEN COMMANDMENTS: Question: Why then do you
preach about Moses if he does not pertain to us? Answer to the Question: Three things are to be noted in Moses. I want to
keep Moses and not sweep him under the rug, because I find three things in Moses. In the first place I dismiss the
commandments given to the people of Israel. They neither urge nor compel me. They are dead and gone, except insofar as I gladly and willingly accept something
from Moses, as if I said, "This is how Moses ruled, and it seems fine to me, so I will follow him in this or that particular."
I would even be glad if [today's] lords ruled according to the example of Moses. If I were emperor, I would take from
Moses a model for [my] statutes; not that Moses should be binding on me, but that I should be free to follow him in ruling
as he ruled. For example, TITHING
is a very fine rule, because with the giving of the tenth all other taxes would be eliminated. For the ordinary man it would also be easier
to give a tenth than to pay rents and fees. Suppose I had ten cows; I would then give one. If I had only five, I would give
nothing. If my fields were yielding only a little, I would give proportionately little; if much, I would give much. All of
this would be in God's providence. But as things are now, I must pay the Gentile tax even if the hail should ruin my entire
crop. If I owe a hundred gulden in taxes, I must pay it even though there may be nothing growing in the field. This is also
the way the pope decrees and governs. But it would be better if things were so arranged that when I raise much, I give much;
and when little, I give little.
When these factious spirits come, however, and say, "Moses has commanded
it," then simply drop Moses and reply, "I am not concerned about what Moses commands." "Yes," they
say, "he has commanded that we should have one God, that we should trust and believe in him, that we should not swear
by his name; that we should honor father and mother; not kill, steal, commit adultery; not bear false witness, and not covet
[Exod. 20:3-17]; should we not keep these commandments?" You reply: Nature also has these laws. Nature
provides that we should call upon God. The Gentiles attest to this fact. … The Gentiles have it written in their heart,
and there is no distinction [Rom. 3:22]. As St.
Paul also shows
in Romans 2:14-15, the Gentiles, who have no law, have the law written in their heart.
But just as the
Jews fail, so also do the Gentiles. Therefore it is To honor God, not steal, not commit adultery, not bear false witness,
not murder; and what Moses commands is nothing new. For what God has given the Jews from heaven, he has also written in the
hearts of all men. Thus I keep
the commandments which Moses has given, not because Moses gave the commandment, but because they have been implanted in me
and Moses agrees exactly with nature, etc.
TITHING: But the other commandments of Moses, which are not [implanted in
all men] by nature, the Gentiles do not hold. Nor do these pertain to the Gentiles, such as the TITHE and others equally fine
which I wish we had too. Now this is the first thing that I ought to see in Moses, namely, the commandments to which I am not bound except
insofar as they are [implanted in everyone] by nature [and written in everyone's heart].
THING ABOUT MOSES:
ACCEPT THAT WHICH IS ABOUIT CHRIST.
I find something
in Moses that I do not have from nature: the promises and pledges of God about Christ. This is the best thing. It is something that is not written naturally into the heart,
but comes from heaven. God has promised, for example, that his Son should be born in the flesh. This is what the gospel proclaims. It is not commandments. And it is the most
important thing in Moses which pertains to us. The first thing, namely, the commandments, does not pertain to us. I read Moses because such excellent and comforting promises
are there recorded, by which I can find strength for my weak faith. For things take place in the kingdom of Christ just as I read in Moses that they will; therein I find also my sure foundation. In
this manner, therefore, I should accept Moses, and not sweep him under the rug: first because he provides fine examples of
laws, from which excerpts may be taken. Second, in Moses there are the promises of God which sustain faith. … Genesis
3:15 …Genesis 22:18 … Deuteronomy 18:15-16 …
One must deal cleanly with the Scriptures.
From the very beginning the word has come to us in various ways. It is not enough simply to look and see whether this is God's word, whether God has said it; rather
we must look and see to whom it has been spoken, whether it fits us. That makes all the difference between night and day.
The word in Scripture is of two kinds: the first does not pertain or apply to me, the
other kind does. And upon that word which does pertain to me I can boldly trust and rely, as upon a strong rock. But if it
does not pertain to me, then I should stand still. Therefore tell this to Moses: Leave Moses and his people together; they
have had their day and do not pertain to me. If Christ had not added, "preach to all creatures," then I would not
listen, would not be baptized, just as I now will not listen to Moses because he is given not to me but only to the Jews.
This distinction should be noticed,
grasped, and taken to heart by those preachers who would teach others; indeed by all Christians, for everything depends entirely
"God's word, God's word." But my dear fellow, the question is whether it was
said to you. God indeed speaks also to angels, wood, fish, birds, animals, and all creatures, but this does not make it pertain
to me. I should pay attention to that which applies to me, that which is said to me, in which God admonishes, drives, and
requires something of me. …
It is like this with the word of God. Suppose I take up something
that God ordered someone else to do, and then I declare, "But you said to do it." God would answer, "Let the devil thank you; I did not tell you to do it."
One must distinguish well whether the word pertains to only one or to everybody. … Thus what God said to Moses by way of commandment
is for the Jews only. …
Thus we read Moses not because he applies to us, that we
must obey him, but because he agrees with the natural law and is conceived better than the Gentiles would ever have been able to do. Thus the Ten Commandments are a mirror
of our life, in which we can see wherein we are lacking, etc. The sectarian spirits have misunderstood also with respect to
the images; for that too pertains only to the Jews. [[2nd commandment]]
up this second part, we read Moses for the sake of the promises about Christ, who belongs not only to the Jews but also to
the Gentiles; for through Christ all the Gentiles should have the blessing, as was promised to Abraham [Gen. 12:3].
THIRD THING ABOUT MOSES:
In the third place we read Moses for the beautiful examples of faith, of love, and of the cross, as shown in the fathers, Adam, Abel, Noah,
Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Moses, and all the rest. …Therefore we should not sweep Moses under the rug. Moreover the Old
Testament is thus properly understood when we retain from the prophets the beautiful texts about Christ, when we take note
of and thoroughly grasp the fine examples, and when we use the laws as we please to our advantage.
and Summary. I have stated that
all Christians, and especially those who handle the word of God and attempt to teach others, should take heed and learn Moses
Thus where he gives the commandments, we are not to follow him except so far as he agrees with the natural law. Moses is a teacher and doctor of the Jews. We have our own master, Christ, and
he has set before us what we are to know, observe, do, and leave undone. However it is true that Moses sets down, in addition
to the laws, fine examples of faith and unfaith - punishment of the godless, elevation of the righteous and believing
- and also the dear and comforting promises concerning Christ which we should accept. The same is true also in the
gospel. For example in the account of the ten lepers, that Christ bids them go to the priest and make sacrifice [Luke 17:14] does not pertain to me. The example of their faith, however,
does pertain to me; I should believe Christ, as did they.
Enough has now been said of this, and it is
to be noted well for it is really
CRUCIAL. Many great and outstanding people have missed it, while even today many great preachers still stumble over it. They
do not know how to preach Moses, nor how properly to regard his books. They are absurd as they rage and fume, chattering to people, "God's word, God's word!" All the
while they mislead the poor people and drive them to destruction. Many learned men have not known how far Moses ought to be taught. Origen, Jerome, and others like them, have
not shown clearly how far Moses can really serve us. This is what I have attempted, to say in an introduction to Moses how we should regard him, and how he should be understood
and received and not simply be swept under the rug. For in Moses there is comprehended such a fine order, that it is a joy,
etc. God be praised.