SHOULD THE CHURCH TEACH TITHING?
"LAW" IN THE BIBLE
Should the Church Teach Tithing?
ARTICLES
BAPTIST ERRORS
BLOGSPOT BLOG LIST SINCE 2005
BUY BOOKS AND VIDEO
ENDORSEMENTS
FIRSTFRUITS WERE NEVER TITHES
REBUTTALS OF TITHE-TEACHERS
RUSSELL EARL KELLY, PHD
SEARCH INDEX
THEOLOGIANS AND HISTORIANS WHO AGREE
INTRODUCTION
1. Origin and Definition of Tithing
2. Genesis 14:20 Abraham, Melchizedek, Arab Custom and Tithing
3. Genesis 28:22 Jacob's Bargain With God
4. Numbers 18: The Obscure Statute/Ordinance of Tithing
5. Leviticus 27:30-34 Tithing and Holy and Most Holy Statutes
6. Tithes Replaced Land Inheritance
7. How Many Tithes? 10%, 20%, or 23 1/3rd%?
8. Deuteronomy 12 and 14: Strange Facts about Tithing
9. The Poor and Jesus Did Not Tithe
10. Kings, Tithes and Taxes: Levites with Political Jobs
11. 2nd Chronicles 31 Explains Malachi
12. Nehemiah 10-13: Historical Context of Malachi
13a. Commentary on Malachi 1 and 2: Cursing the Priests for Stealing
13b. Malachi 3 and 4
14. Matthew 23:23; Luke 11:42 Supporting the Old Covenant and Its Interpreters
15. Luke 18:12 A Pharisee's Boast about Tithing
16. Acts 15 and 21: Compromise Divided the Jerusalem Church
17. Hebrews 8; 2nd Corinthians 3; A Better New Covenant; MARTIN LUTHER
18. The Mosaic Law and the "Law" of Christ; MATT 5:17-19
19. Hebrews 7: Extremely Important
20. Ephesians 2:14-16; Colossians 2:13-17: Law Ordinances Ended
21. 1 Peter 2:9-10: Your Priesthood Abolishes Tithing
22. 1 Corinthians 9: Using Christian Liberty to Refuse Christian Rights [2007]
23. 1 Corinthians 16: Principles for Giving to the Needy
24. 1 Timothy 5:17: Worthy of Double Honor
25. Miscellaneous Objections
26. Chafer and Walvoord on New Covenant Giving
27. 2 Corinthians 8 and 9: Principles of Grace Giving
28. Acts 20:16-35: Paul's Sermon is Not Preached
29. Secular History of Tithing
30. Tithing Principles for Tithe-Teaching Churches
31. Spreading the Gospel
BIBLIOGRAPHY AND PAGE #
58% of Evangelical Leaders Reject Tithing, April 2011
140 QUESTIONS FOR TITHE ADVOCATES
1873: TITHING FIRST SUGGESTED IN USA
20% OF SBC PASTORS AND 31% OF OTHER PASTORS AGREE
ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF THIS BOOK
AKIN, DANIEL, PRESIDENT SEBTS
ALCORN, RANDY
Amazon.com Reviews
ANTI-TITHING VIDEOS
ASSEMBLY OF GOD TITHING STATEMENT
BACKLASH AGAINST TITHING, WALL STREET JOURNAL
BAKER, ROBERT A: SBC HISTORIAN
BAKER'S EVANGELICAL DICTIONARY OF THE BIBLE
BAPTIST STATEMENTS OF FAITH AGREED UNTIL 1963
Bafcley, William
BLACK, DAVID ALAN, TH. D.; SBC THEOLOGIAN
BLOGGING CONDEMNED BY GEORGIA BAPTIST LEADERS
BOOKIDEAS: PROFESSIONAL BOOK REVIEW
BROWN, TOM: WOF MINISTRIES
BURKETT, LARRY AND DAYTON, HOWARD; CROWN
CALVIN, JOHN: TITHING
CAMERON, BARRY: TITHING ABCs
CARSON, D A; REBUTTAL ON TITHING
CARTOON
CBS TRANSCRIPT AND COMMENTS
CHARISMA MAGAZINE 3-11-08
CHEUNG, VINCENT: MALACHI
CHRISTIAN TODAY, TITHING, 2016
CHRISTIAN TORAH DOCTRINE
CHURCH OF SCOTLAND RECOMMENDED READING
COME LET US GROW TOGETHER: TITHING
CONNER, KEVIN J; MELCHIZEDEK
COPELAND, KENNETH: TITHING REBUTTAL
CORBAN AND FIRSTFRUIT-TITHING
CROTEAU, DAVID, PHD
CROWN MINISTRIES 2012
DANA, H E: SOUTHERN BAPTIST HISTORIAN
DEJONG, PAUL: TITHING
DOLLAR, CREFLO: TITHING REBUTAL
Et essay: Tiende er ikke en kristen lære
Dizimar não é uma doutrina cristã
Un ensayo: el diezmar no es una doctrina cristiana
EVANS, TONY
EZEKIEL'S TEMPLE: NO TITHING
FLOYD, RONNIE
GEORGE, WILLIE; REBUTTAL
GOD'S PLAN OF SALVATION
GRACE-GIVING CHURCHES
GRAHAM, BILLY: TITHING
GRAHAM, FRANKLIN: SALARY-TITHING
GREIMANN, DEAN ON TITHING
HAGEE, JOHN
HANNESSY, SHAWN, TITHING
HAYFORD, JACK; TITHING
HEMPHILL, KENNETH, TITHING; SBC SPOKESMAN
KEN HEMPHILL AND BOBBY EKLUND
HINN, BENNY: TITHING
HOUSTON, BRIAN: HILLSONG, TITHING
HOW TO BECOME A PROSPERITY PREACHER
If We Don't Preach Tithing, How Do We Pay the Church Bills?
JAKES, TD; 49 LIES TOLD ABOUT TITHING
JEREMIAH, DAVID: TITHING
JEWISH TITHING CONCEPTS
JOYNER, RICK: TITHING REBUTTAL
KENDALL, R T: TITHING
KENNEDY, JAMES, PHD: TITHING
KOSTENBERGER, ANDREAS: 12-4-2007
"LAW" IN THE BIBLE
LAWLESS, CHUCK ON TITHING
LETTER TO YOUR PASTOR ABOUT TITHING
LINKS: SITES AND BOOKS
LIST OF TITHING OPPONENTS THROUGHOUT HISTORY
LIST OF UNSCRIPTURAL BAPTIST TITHING ERRORS
LONDON DEBATE: POINT BY POINT COMMENTS
LONDON DEBATE, MAR 30, 2011 TRANSCRIPT
LONDON TV DEBATE DETAILS PLUS
LUTHER, MARTIN REJECTED TITHING: 1525
MALACHI 3:10 HAS BEEN MISINTERPRETED
MALACHI 3:10: THE TEST-GOD TITHE MYTH
MARINELLI, CHAD, WORD OF FAITH
MARTIN, ERNEST L; THE TITHING DILEMMA
MATTHEW 5:17-19
MAXWELL, JOHN C
MELCHIZEDEK: WAS HE A PAGAN GENTILE?
MEYER, ALLAN: TITHING
MONEY WITH GENTILE IMAGES WAS BANNED
MORRIS, ROBERT: Jesus is the Tithe
MORMON-LDS TITHING
NORTH, GARY COVENANTAL TITHE
NORTH, GARY PERSPECTIVES ON TITHING
NORTH, GARY WIKIPEDIA
OWEN, JOHN --DID NOT TEACH TITHING
PAGAN CHRISTIANITY: BOOK REVIEW
PINK, A W: TITHING
PIPER, JOHN: TITHING
POEMS BY H. K. PYWELL
POSITION PAPER FORCES EMPLOYEES TO TEACH TITHING
PREACHERS, EVANGELISTS AND THEOLOGIANS SPEAK OUT
PRINCE, JOSEPH
PROSPERITY GOSPEL: AVANZINI PLUS
PROSPERITY GOSPEL: Jones and Woodbridge
PROSPERITY GOSPEL REFUTATION
RAMSEY, DAVE: TITHING
RENDER UNTO CAESAR
RHODE ISLAND BAPTISTS: 1638-1770S
RICH PREACHERS WHO TEACH TITHING
ROBERTSON, NORMAN: TITHING
ROBINSON, VON ON TITHING
ROGERS, ADRIAN: Tithing Rebuttal
ROGERS, ROD: PASTOR DRIVEN STEWARDSHIP
ROSS, CHARLES: TITHING
SBC CHURCH WANTS YOUR BANK ROUTING NUMBER FOR TITHE
SBC FINANCIAL ABUSE
SBC SCHOLARS: THEOLOGIANS AND HISTORIANS WHO AGREE
SCHREINER, THOMAS SBC
SCHREINER, THOMAS R, PHD, SBTS, TITHING
SHAFFER, GLENN ON TITHING, RUSS KELLY
SIX MOST QUOTED LIES ABOUT TITHING
SOUTHERN BAPTIST ENCYCLOPEDIA: TITHING
SOUTHERN BAPTIST TITHING BROCHURES
SPROUL, R C: TITHING REBUTTAL
SPURGEON, CHARLES H
ST PETERSBURG TIMES
STOREHOUSE TITHING ERROR
SUBMISSION THEOLOGY
SUNDAY SCHOOL LESSON ON TITHING; JANUARY 28, 2007
SWAZILAND, POVERTY, AND PROSPERITY PREACHERS
SWINDOLL, CHARLES (CHUCK): TITHING
TBN: THE CROUCHES: TITHING
TEXT INDEX FOR 2007 EDITION
THEOLOGICAL DOUBLE-TALK
TIMELINE: BAPTIST, SBC and REK BOOK
TITHE MAPS IN 18TH CENTURY EUROPE
TITHES: NEW ADVENT CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA
TITHING ABUSE STORIES
TITHE AND OFFERING SCRIPTURES.COM/LEON
WALL STREET JOURNAL: RUSSELL KELLY LETTER
WARREN, RICK ON TITHING
WARREN, RICK: TITHING 2015
WE ARE NOT ALONE: VERY STRONG SUPPORT
Web Sites Which Discuss This Book and Tithing
WESLEY, JOHN
Where in the Bible Were Tithes Abolished?
WIDOW'S MITE
WOODWARD, GEOFF: TITHING
WYCLIFFE DICTIONARY OF THEOLOGY; F F BRUCE
WYTSMA, KEN: TITHING REBUTTAL
YOUNG, ED: TITHING REBUTTAL

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Should the Church Teach Tithing?
A Theologian's Conclusions about a Taboo Doctrine
Russell Earl Kelly, PHD

Video Tithing Essay on You Tube

video tithing debate

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GOD’S LAW IN THE BIBLE

By Russell Earl Kelly, PHD

September 11, 2008

 

Contents:

 

1.       The O. T. Word is the Entire Law

2.       The O. T. Law was an Indivisible Whole

3.       The O. T. written Law was only given to Israel

4.       The Sabbath was the Sign of the Old Covenant

5.       The Judgments were Inseparable from the Ten Commandments

6.       The Worship Statutes were Inseparable from the Ten Commandments

7.       The Law was given as Pre-school Instructions

8.       Jesus Lived, Taught and Died under the Jurisdiction of the Whole Law

9.       In Jesus the Righteous Standard of God Switched from the Shadow Law to the      Reality of Jesus Christ Who Personified the Righteousness of the Law.

10.     The Four Gospels Do Not Limit the Law to the Ten Commandments

11.     The Law in Romans is not the Ten Commandments

…………………………………

1.       IN THE OLD TESTAMENT, THE “WORD” IS THE ENTIRE MOSAIC LAW, THE ENTIRE OLD COVENANT, OR THE ENTIRE REVELATION OF GOD; IT IS NOT MERELY THE TEN COMMANDMENTS.

 

(Imrah, Strong’s 565) Deu 33:9 (covenant); 2 Sam 22:31 (perfect); Ps 12:6 (pure); 119:41 (word promises mercy and salvation); 119:50 (quickened me); 119:82 (comfort); 119:103 (sweeter than honey); 119:116 (upholds); 119:123 (righteousness); 119:133 (steps/walk in); 119:158 (transgression); 119:172 (righteousness); 138:2 (word above God’s name); Isa 5:24 (law)

 

(Dabar, Strong’s 1697) Ex 24:3,4,8 (words of covenant); 34:28 (words of covenant, 10 cmdts); Ps 33:4 (right); 33:6 (creation); 103:20 (angels obey); 105:8 (covenant); 105:19 (tried/judged); 107:20 (heals); 119:9 (changes way); 119:11 (hid in heart, prevents sin); 119:16 (statutes); 119:25 (quickens); 119:28 (strengthens); 119:58 (promises mercy); 119:81 (offers hope); 119:89 (forever settled in heaven); 119:105 (lamp; light); 119:160 (true, judgments forever); 119:169 (promises understanding); 147:18 (creation); 147:19 (statutes and judgments)

 

2.       THE O. T. LAW WAS ALWAYS AN INDIVISIBLE WHOLE WITH 613 COMMANDMENTS. ALL OF IT WAS MORAL. TRANSGRESSION OF ANY OF IT WAS SIN.

 

Forty-seven (47) times God’s Word states that His Law is an indivisible whole. One either obeys ALL or is guilty of transgressing all as a set of instructions (Deu 28-29).

 

No Hebrew, Jew or inspired Bible writer defined only the Ten Commandments as the moral law and downgraded the statutes and judgments to become disposable parts of the law.

 

Ex 19:5; 23:22; 24:3, 7; Lev 19:37; 20:22; 26:14-15; Num 15:40; Deu 5:1, 29, 31; 6:2, 24-25; 8:1; 11:8, 22, 32; 12:14, 28; 13:18; 15:5; 17:19; 19:9; 26:16-19; 27:1; 28:1, 15, 45, 58; 29:29; 30:2, 8; 31:12; 32:46; Josh 1:7-8; 22:5; 23:6; 1 Kg 2:3; 6:12; 8:58; 9:4; Jer 7:23; 1:4; 2 Chron 33:8; Matt 5:19; 22:40; Gal 5:3; James 2:10.

 

3.       THE LAW OF GOD AS THE OLD COVENANT WAS ONLY GIVEN TO NATIONAL ISRAEL.

 

Ex 19:5 Now therefore, if ye will obey my voice indeed, and keep my covenant, then ye shall be a peculiar treasure unto me above all people: for all the earth is mine:

Ex 19:6 And ye shall be unto me a kingdom of priests, and an holy nation. These are the words which thou shalt speak unto the children of Israel.

 

The Law embodied God’s Constitution, His Covenant, only with the nation Israel!  The possession of the Law made Israel “peculiar” from other nations and separated national Israel from all other nations on earth. God distinctly ordered Israel NOT to share His covenant-law with other nations. The law made Israel His peculiar nation (Ex 19:5,6; 34;10; Lev 27:34; Deu 4:8; 7:6; 14:2; 26:18-19; 28:1; Ps 135:4; Isa 5:5-7; Mal 4:4; Mark 12:1; Eph 2:12-16).

 

4.       THE SEVENTH-DAY SABBATH WAS ONLY A SIGN AND SEAL OF GOD’S OLD COVENANT WITH NATIONAL ISRAEL.

 

Ex 31:13 Speak thou also unto the children of Israel, saying, Verily my sabbaths ye shall keep: for it is a sign between me and you throughout your generations; that ye may know that I am the LORD that doth sanctify you.

Ex 31:14 Ye shall keep the sabbath therefore; for it is holy unto you: every one that defileth it shall surely be put to death: for whosoever doeth any work therein, that soul shall be cut off from among his people.

Ex 31:15 Six days may work be done; but in the seventh is the sabbath of rest, holy to the LORD: whosoever doeth any work in the sabbath day, he shall surely be put to death.

Ex 31:16 Wherefore the children of Israel shall keep the sabbath, to observe the sabbath throughout their generations, for a perpetual covenant.

Ex 31:17 It is a sign between me and the children of Israel for ever: for in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, and on the seventh day he rested, and was refreshed.

 

If the Saturday-Sabbath were indeed meant for all nations then it could not (at the same time) serve as a unique sign and seal of the Old Covenant to Israel.

 

5.       THE JUDGMENTS WERE AN INSEPARABLE PART OF THE TEN COMMANDMENTS AND COMMANDED PUNISHMENT FOR DISOBEYING THE TEN COMMANDMENTS AND ALL PRESUMPTIOUS SINS.

 

Using contextual biblical principles (hermeneutics), the Ten Commandments cannot be separated from the Judgments. God commanded obedience to both with equal intensity (See 47 texts above). The Ten Commandments of Exodus 20 are immediately followed by the judgment-commands of the law.

 

Those who quote Matthew 5:17 (“Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfill”) and ignore Matthew 5:19 (“Whosoever therefore shall break one of these least commandments, and shall teach men so, he shall be called the least in the kingdom of heaven: but whosoever shall do and teach them, the same shall be called great in the kingdom of heaven”) violate this principle and fail to explain why the judgments of the Law are not followed by churches today.

 

For a few examples the judgment-commands of the Law: (1) endorsed slavery (Ex 21:1-11); (2) commanded retribution of an eye for eye and limb for a limb, etc (Ex 21:18-27); (3) did not condemn male fornication with unmarried women and slaves (Ex 22:16-17); (4) forbade believers from charging interest to fellow believers (Ex 22:25); (5) commanded believers not to curse those who have authority over them (Ex 22:28); (6) commanded that one’s firstborn child be given to God (Ex 22:29-30); (7) commanded that farmland be rested every seventh year (Ex 23:10-11); (8) commanded Israelites not to even utter the names of other gods (Ex 23:13) and (9) commanded males to travel to Jerusalem and observe three festivals every year (Ex 23:14).

 

The Judgments commanded death for presumptuous transgression of any of the first 7-8 commandments. There was no sacrifice allowed or prescribed for the following premeditated sins.

 

Worship of other gods: (Ex 22:20)

Children who curse or strike parents: (Ex 21:15, 17);

Work on the Sabbath day: (Num 15:32-36)

Premeditated murder: (Ex 21:12-14)

Adultery: (Lev 20:10)

 

Sarcastically speaking, those Saturday Sabbath-keeping churches which consider themselves to be God’s new Israel ought to be shouting like the ancient Sanhedrin to our civil government --“we have a law , and by our law he ought to die” (Jn 19:7)-- to have their own Sabbath-breaking members put to death. SDAs cast Exodus 31:13-17 at others and ignore it themselves by making Saturday their busiest day of the week.

 

6.       THE STATUTES/ORDINANCES WERE AN INSEPARABLE PART OF THE TEN COMMANDMENTS AND COMMANDED SACRIFICES FOR LESSER SINS.

 

Again the 47 sets of texts describe the indivisibleness of the law. The statutes/ordinances were the cultic ceremonial worship commandments only for Israel. While presumptuous sins caused death or cutting off, these included that last two (or three) of the Ten Commandments plus sins committed in ignorance and necessity (such as touching dead bodies and menstrual flows).

 

The worship statutes are far from less important than the Ten Commandments. They kept Israel in an atoned state of fellowship with God. Failure to observe the statutes resulted in the same uncleanness and cutting off as more heinous sins of presumption. Priests who failed to follow the exact purification ritual were subject to being put to death because they had committed moral sin beyond the Ten Commandments.

 

7.       THE ENTIRE LAW WAS GIVEN TO A FORMER SLAVE NATION WITH AN UNEDUCATED PRE-SCHOOL MENTAILITY.

 

Gal 3:19 Wherefore then serveth the law? It was added because of transgressions, till the seed should come to whom the promise was made; and it was ordained by angels in the hand of a mediator.

…..

Gal 3:24 Wherefore the law was our schoolmaster to bring us unto Christ, that we might be justified by faith.

Gal 3:25 But after that faith is come, we are no longer under a schoolmaster.

 

Heb 7:11 If therefore perfection were by the Levitical priesthood, (for under it the people received the law,) what further need was there that another priest should rise after the order of Melchisedec, and not be called after the order of Aaron? (also 10:1; Ps 110:4)

 

The entire law, including the Ten Commandments, was “added” to natural law and conscience (Rom 1:18-19; 2:14-16) to make sin more evident (Rom 5:11-18). It was added “until” the seed (Jesus Christ) should come (Gal 3:19). In other words, the law had both a beginning and an ending in Bible history. David’s statement about Melchizedek in Psalm 110:4 prophesied the necessary end of the Law (Heb 7:12-10).

 

8.       JESUS LIVED, TAUGHT AND DIED UNDER THE JURISDICTION OF THE WHOLE LAW.

 

Gal 4:4 But when the fullness of the time was come, God sent forth his Son, made of a woman, made under the law.

 

Matt 5:24 Leave there thy gift before the altar, and go thy way; first be reconciled to thy brother, and then come and offer thy gift.

 

Matt 8:4 And Jesus saith unto him, See thou tell no man; but go thy way, shew thyself to the priest, and offer the gift that Moses commanded, for a testimony unto them.

 

Matt 23:23 Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye pay tithe of mint and anise and cummin, and have omitted the weightier matters of the law, judgment, mercy, and faith: these ought ye to have done, and not to leave the other undone.

 

The person who describes events prior to Calvary as “New Covenant” or “New Testament” is guilty of faulty principles of interpretation. As a Jew living while the Law was still in full effect, Jesus of necessity obeyed every aspect of that Law which applied to himself and he also of necessity taught his Jewish disciples to do the same. Anything less would have been sin! However this cannot be used as evidence that Jesus taught the church to be under the jurisdiction of the entire law or even the Ten Commandments as they were used in the Law. In fact Jesus could not possibly have commanded his Gentile converts to obey the Law because such would not have been accepted short of becoming a circumcised Jew.

 

9.       IN JESUS THE RIGHTEOUS STANDARD OF GOD SWTICHED FROM THE SHADOW LAW TO THE REALITY OF JESUS CHRIST WHO PERSONFIED THE RIGHTEOUSNESS OF THE LAW.

 

Matt 17:5 This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased; hear ye him.

 

John 1:17 For the law was given by Moses, but grace and truth came by Jesus Christ.

 

John 14:6 Jesus saith unto him, I am the way, the truth, and the life: no man cometh unto the Father, but by me.

 

John 16:8 And when he is come, he will reprove the world of sin, and of righteousness, and of judgment:

John 16:9 Of sin, because they believe not on me.

 

Rom 3:21 But now the righteousness of God without the law is manifested, being witnessed by the law and the prophets;

22 Even the righteousness of God which is by faith of Jesus Christ unto all and upon all them that believe: for there is no difference:

23 For all have sinned, and come short of the glory of God;

24 Being justified freely by his grace through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus:

25 Whom God hath set forth to be a propitiation through faith in his blood, to declare his righteousness for the remission of sins that are past, through the forbearance of God;

26 To declare, I say, at this time his righteousness: that he might be just, and the justifier of him which believeth in Jesus.

 

Col 2:16 Let no man therefore judge you in meat, or in drink, or in respect of an holyday, or of the new moon, or of the sabbath days:

17 Which are a shadow of things to come; but the body is of Christ.

 

Heb 1:1-2 God … hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son …

 

Heb 10:1 For the law having a shadow of good things to come, and not the very image of the things, can never with those sacrifices which they offered year by year continually make the comers thereunto perfect.

 

The shadow truths of the entire law began ending with the advent of Jesus Christ and ended at His crucifixion.

 

10.     THE FOUR GOSPELS TYPICALLY DO NOT USE THE WORD “LAW” TO MEAN “TEN COMMANDMENTS.”

 

The phrase “Law of God” does not occur in the four Gospels.

 

MATTHEW: (1) 5:17-19: whole law must be fulfilled; (2) 7:12 and 11:13: “law and prophets” means the entire revelation of God to Israel; (3) 12:5: “law” refers to the worship statutes; (4) 22:36-40: the two “great commandments” of the law are found outside of the Ten Commandments in Deu 6:5 and Lev 19:18; (5) 23:23: law refers to tithing in Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy. In no text does the word “law” only refer to the Ten Commandments.

 

MARK: The Gospel of Mark does not contain the word “law.”

 

LUKE: (1) 2:23-27, 39: law refers to the worship statutes; 5:17: law means all of the law; (3) 10:25-27 (compare Mt 22:36-40): the “greatest commandments” in the Law which command to love God are not found in the Ten Commandments but in Deu 6:5 and Lev 19:18; (4) 16:16 “law and commandments” refers to all of God’s revelation to Israel; (5) 24:44 “law of Moses and the prophets” refers to all of God’s revelation to Israel. Again, In no text does the word “law” only refer to the Ten Commandments.

 

JOHN: (1) 1:17: as in Matthew 5:20-48, Jesus made his own “commandments” (14:15), “words” (14:23) and “sayings” (14:24) superior to the law “For the law was given by Moses, but grace and truth came by Jesus Christ”; (2) 1:45: Philip said “Moses in the Law”; (3) 7:19 “Did not Moses give you the law?”; (4) 7:23 Jesus called it “the law of Moses”; (5) 8:5 “Moses in the law”; (6) 8:17 and 10:34; Jesus called it “your law” and in 15:25 Jesus called it “their law.” Again, oddly, Jesus never called the Law in any of the Gospels either the “Law of God” or “my law” or even “my commandments.”

 

10.     THE LAW IN ROMANS IS NOT THE TEN COMMANDMENTS

 

(1) principle of nature (2:14, 27)

(2) entire Old Testament (2:15)

(3) new covenant in hearts (2:15, 29)

(4) principle of conscience (2:15)

(5) principle of righteousness by faith (3:22; 4:13; 9:31)

(6) law/principle of works (3:27)

(7) law/principle of faith (3:28; 4:16)

(8) law/principle of revelation (5:20)

(9) law/principle of grace (5:20)

(10) law/principle of sin (7:11)

(11) law/principle is spiritual (7:14)

(12) principle of self-will (7:15, 17, 22)

(13) principle of will-power (7:18-21)

(14) principle/law of my mind (7:23, 25)

(15) principle/law of justification in Christ (8:1)

(15) law of the spirit of life in Christ (8:2)

(16) law of sin and death (8:2)

(17) principle of the Spirit (8:4)

(18) principle/law of love (13:8, 10)

 

The Epistle of Romans is an enlightening but difficult study of the word “law.”  It is enlightening because Paul uses it with a great variety of meanings. And it is difficult because the English article “the” is often inserted when there is no article in the original Greek and confusion results. Once again, however, the term generally refers to the entire revelation of God either to Israel through the whole written law or to the rest of the world through natural law and the conscience. “Law” does not refer exclusively to the Ten Commandments.

 

Rom 2:11 “For there is no respect of persons with God.”

 

This exceedingly radical statement precedes the 70+ uses of “law” in Romans and must have been both a shock and a new revelation to Jewish listeners. The Old Covenant with its highly-blessed pre-eminence of Israelites had ended. 

 

God is now manifesting Himself as El Elyon, God Most High of all nations and not just Yahweh, the exclusive covenant-God of Israel. Although God had always loved all created mankind, in the New Covenant He is no longer favoring national Israel. The Gentiles ---who have never heard of the formal written Law and its Ten Commandments, who have never been circumcised, who have never observed the three yearly festivals, who have never observed the Sabbath-day, who have never paid tithes and who have never stopped eating unclean foods--- have just as great an opportunity of being saved as do the Jews!

 

Important Note: Where the KJV has the article “the” but the Greek does not, [---] is inserted. [The] denotes an article in the Greek which is not in the English translation.

 

Rom 2:12 “For as many as have sinned without law shall also perish without law; and as many as have sinned in [---] law shall be judged by [---] law.”

 

The important "first use" of "law" in Romans does not use "law" to refer to the 613 commandments of the formal written Law. "Law" is the "principle" whereby God reveals Himself to mankind.

 

New Covenant? Yes. New idea? No. That is what the O. T. book of Jonah is all about ---God showed mercy to Gentile Ninevites and judged them according to what little light they had without teaching them the formal Law. Through Jonah, Yahweh (Jesus) commanded the Assyrians what to do and they obeyed.

 

Rom 2:13 “For not the hearers of [---] law are just before God, but the doers of [---] law shall be justified.”

 

This text cannot possibly be interpreted by strict law-teachers to mean that God expects everybody to literally obey the Old Covenant Law in order to be saved (including circumcision, Sabbath-keeping, festival-attending, tithing and clean food observance). It must have a spiritual interpretation.

 

Rom 2:14 “For when the Gentiles, which have not [---] law, do by nature the things contained in the law, these, having not [---] law, are a law unto themselves.”

 

The most common usage of “nomos/law” in Romans is “God’s revelation of his will, his righteous standards, to mankind.” In 2:14 the Gentiles lacked special revelation such as the entire O. T. given to national Israel. Their obedience to nature was itself obedience to law as a “principle.” In 2:14 “law” is neither the Pentateuch nor the Ten Commandments.

 

Even though it has been severely obscured by sin, there seems to be barely enough consciousness of right and wrong, the consequences of sin, inside fallen man for God to judge even the non-Hebrew. That is what the text says without getting into a theological dispute over total depravity.  Again, like the Ninevites of Jonah’s time, God can righteously condemn or offer grace to those outside of his greater special revelation. However, they must still hear the Word and respond to it (Rom 10:13-15).

 

Rom 2:15-16 “Which show the work of the law written in their hearts, their conscience also bearing witness, and their thoughts the mean while accusing or else excusing one another in the day when God shall judge the secrets of men by Jesus Christ according to my gospel.”

 

Gentiles who obey the light of “nature” and “conscience” are indicating (en-dei-knun-tai) that the law has been written inside their hearts (Jn 1:9; Heb 8:8-13).

 

The “work of the law written in their hearts” cannot possibly refer to the whole Law of Moses or even to the Ten Commandments. It must be that part of the formal written Law which is eternal, moral and reflects the divine character of God. It also must only refer to that part of God which is revealed within the heart of man. This would exclude things like literal and physical circumcision, holy days and unclean foods which require special revelation. Paul discussed this at length in Romans 1:18-32.

 

Rom 2:17 “Behold, you are called a Jew, and rest in the law and make thy boast of God.”

 

See 2:17-20. "The law" is "all of God's special revelation of his righteous standards to Israel" --especially the 613 commandments of the Pentateuch. 

 

Like modern law-teachers the Jew thought that he was better than the Gentiles because he had special revelation of things such as circumcision, Sabbath-keeping, food laws and tithing.

 

Rom 2:26 Therefore if the uncircumcision keep the righteousness of the law, shall not his uncircumcision be counted for circumcision?

 

This would shock Jews. Uncircumcised Gentiles could actually keep the "righteousness of the law" without observing the Sabbath, food laws, circumcision or tithing.

 

Rom 2:27 And shall not uncircumcision which is by nature, if it fulfill the law, judge you, who by the letter and circumcision dost transgress [---] law?

 

This is an extremely important text. There is a "law" or "principle" of "nature" which can actually "fulfill" the purpose of "the law."

 

Rom 2:28 For he is not a Jew, which is one outwardly; neither is that circumcision, which is outward in the flesh:

Rom 2:29 But he is a Jew, which is one inwardly; and circumcision is that of the heart, in the spirit, and not in the letter; whose praise is not of men, but of God.

 

Those Gentiles who have never received special revelation about the literal letter of the law are deemed as achieving the righteousness of the law by obeying the light within them (which is Jesus per John 1:9). Therefore literally uncircumcised Gentiles can be considered spiritually circumcised and more “Jew” than mere physical Jews who do not obey God. Those who are obeying the spirit of the law know nothing of the literal details of circumcision, Sabbath-keeping, tithing and unclean foods.

 

Also very important is the use of the phrase “fulfill the law” in 2:27. It means to attain, or reach, the righteous requirement of the law. That is done only through the imputed righteousness of Jesus Christ by faith alone.

 

Rom 3:19 Now we know that what things the law says, it says to them who are under the law: that every mouth may be stopped, and all the world may become guilty before God.

 

3:19-20 re favorite texts for law-teachers who use them out of context to prove that the Church is still obligated to observe the Old Covenant Law, or at least only the Ten Commandments.

 

Along with 2:14-16 and 2:26-29 these verses (3:19-20) give the best insight into Paul's use of the word "law" in Romans.

(1) 3:19-20 constitute a summary statement of the discussion from 2:11 to 3:18.

(2) 3:1-18 has just quoted only the Psalms and Isaiah and has called them “law.”

(3) “The law” in 3:19 cannot possibly refer solely to either "the Law of God through Moses to Israel" or to "the law of nature and conscience" to the Gentiles (2:11-29).

(4) Since “every mouth” and “all the world” are being condemned by “the law,” then “the law” can only refer to "the revelation of God's righteousness to mankind." That includes both ALL of the formal Law to the Jews and also nature and conscience to the Gentiles.

(5) “Law” in Romans 3 is not the Ten Commandments. The Ten Commandments are not called "the law" anywhere in Romans.

 

Rom 3:20 Therefore by the deeds of [---] law there shall no flesh be justified in his sight: for by [---] law is the knowledge of sin.

 

The Greek of 3:20 reads different from most translations in three places.

(1) The article “the” is missing in front of both of the words “law.”

(2) It is “law” as a principle and includes the formal literal written Law for the Jews and also the inward natural conscience of the Gentiles.

(3) The Ten Commandments are not in view here!

(4) The final verb "is" is inserted. In the context of the very next words "but now apart from law" and Jesus' declaration in John 16:8-9 that "sin" which condemns is "because they believe not on me," the verb should be either "was" or "has been." Jesus is the new standard of righteousness in the new covenant. That is why he declared "I am the way, the truth and the life" in John 14:6.

 

Therefore the text cannot honestly be manipulated to say that the Ten Commandments are still in force to define sin for all mankind.

 

Rom 3:21 But now the righteousness of God without [---] law is manifested, being witnessed by the law and the prophets.

 

The revelation of God’s will through the righteousness of truth in Jesus Christ superseded all previous kinds of revelation or laws.

 

Rom 3:27 Where is boasting then? It is excluded. By what law? of works? Nay: but by [---]  law of faith. [Greek omits the article]

 

The word “law” here refers to a “principle”  both times. Both Jews and Gentiles become righteous by believing in Jesus (faith; v22). Justification before God comes by grace (v24) through faith (v25). Obedience to any law –whether the Law of God through Moses or the natural law of the conscience—is no longer involved (v26). Therefore boasting does not enter into the discussion. The principle which excludes boasting (of law-keeping) is voided by the principle of faith.

 

Rom 3:28 Therefore we conclude that a man is justified by faith without the deeds of [---] law. [Grk: no article]

 

This reflects back to 3:20 where “law” has no article because it refers to all revelation of God to mankind.

 

Rom 3:29 Is he the God of the Jews only? is he not also of the Gentiles? Yes, of the Gentiles also:

Rom 3:30 Seeing it is one God, which shall justify the circumcision by faith, and uncircumcision through [THE] faith.

 

The answer has been concluded in 3:20 that the law-principle cannot save but only condemns both Jews and Gentiles. The Gentiles especially are justified through “the” principle of faith.

 

Rom 3:31 Do we then make void [---] law through faith? God forbid: yea, we establish [---] law.

 

The article is missing both times as it is also missing both times in 3:20. Although included as part of God’s revelation to all mankind, the Law of God through Moses is not exclusively being discussed! The necessity of justification by faith proves that justification could not come by any principle which merely condemned. The entire discussion from 1:18 to 3:31 involves the condemnation of both Jews and Gentiles through the operation of the principle of law which is God’s revelation of His will to all mankind.

 

Rom 4:13 For the promise, that he should be the heir of the world, was not to Abraham, or to his seed, through [---] law, but through the righteousness of faith.

 

Since “the” law did not exist in Abraham’s time, the article is missing in the Greek. It means a principle of works righteousness. Compare 3:27.

 

Rom 4:14 For if they which are of [---] law be heirs, faith is made void, and the promise made of none effect:

 

If obedience to a principle of works makes one righteous, then faith is not necessary and the promise made to Abraham is meaningless.

 

Rom 4:15 Because the law worketh wrath: for where no law is, there is no transgression.

 

The principle of divine revelation through law in chapters 1:18 to 3:20 brought about condemnation to both the Gentiles and Jews. Again the two definitions are combined –Law of God for Hebrews and natural/conscience for the Gentiles.

 

Rom 416 Therefore it is of faith, that it might be by grace; to the end the promise might be sure to all the seed; not to that only which is of the law, but to that also which is of [---] faith of Abraham; who is the father of us all.

 

When referring exclusively to Jews (Hebrews), “the law” refers to the entire revelation of God to them. It neither refers only to the Pentateuch nor exclusively to the Ten Commandments.

 

Rom 5:13 (For until [---] law sin was in the world: but sin is not imputed when there is no law.

 

Early man was not as accountable for sinning against divine revelation as was man when God made His revelation clear. “Law” is much broader than the Ten Commandments in the book of Romans.

 

Rom 5:14 Nevertheless death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over them that had not sinned after the similitude of Adam's transgression, who is the figure of him that was to come.

 

Men died before Moses and the formal Law because there was enough of God’s revelation to condemn through nature and conscience per Romans, chapter one.

 

Rom 5:20 Moreover [---] law entered, that the offence might abound. But where sin abounded, grace did much more abound.

 

It is impossible to limit “law” to Ten Commandments when it includes the entire revelation of God to man so often in the book of Romans.

 

Rom 6:14 For sin shall not have dominion over you: for ye are not under [---] law, but under grace.

Rom 6:15 What then? shall we sin, because we are not under [---] law , but under grace? God forbid.

 

Paul is addressing a mixed audience who interpreted “law” according to their own context. The Jew is no longer under the revealed formal literal Law of God and the Gentile is no longer under nature and conscience. The Holy Spirit has written the new Law of Love in the heart as part of the believer’s new creation (Heb 8:10). The new law is based on God’s righteous revelation of Himself in Christ. By comparing Christ’s righteousness to our own we are convicted as sinners (2 Cor 3:18). The fact that an old law-principle condemns everybody is not a basis of more sin in order to bring more grace. The argument is sarcasm.

 

Rom 7:1 Know ye not, brethren, (for I speak to them that know [---] law,) how that the law hath dominion over a man as long as he liveth?

 

Paul uses “brethren” 14 times in Romans and only in 9:3 is it limited to fellow Israelites. Even though Paul uses the article “the” to modify “law,” it means “God’s revelation of his righteousness” to allow both Jewish and Gentile Christians to interpret it in their own context. Remember, the Gentiles never were under the formal literal law.

 

Paul is still speaking to both Jews and Gentiles as “brethren.” He is focusing on the better informed ones who understand how the principle of law itself operates. “A man” means much more than Jewish men; it means man in general.  The law principle rules over all men as long as they live –whether spiritual, governmental, nature or conscience.

 

Rom 7:2 For the woman which hath an husband is bound by [---] law to her husband so long as he liveth; but if the husband be dead, she is loosed from the law of her husband.

 

This is true of secular, pagan and Jewish law.

 

Rom 7:3 So then if, while her husband liveth, she be married to another man, she shall be called an adulteress: but if her husband be dead, she is free from that law; so that she is no adulteress, though she be married to another man.

 

"That law" can refer to secular or religious law, whether pagan or Jewish.

 

Rom 7:4 Wherefore, my brethren, ye also are become dead to the law by the body of Christ; that ye should be married to another, even to him who is raised from the dead, that we should bring forth fruit unto God.

 

Since "my brethren" and "ye" refers to both Jews and Gentiles, then "dead to the law" cannot be a reference specifically to the Law of Moses because the Gentiles never were under the jurisdiction of that law. "The law" means "God revelation of his righteous standards to mankind."

 

Rom 7:5 For when we were in the flesh, the motions of sins, which were by the law, did work in our members to bring forth fruit unto death.

 

For Jews sins were condemned by the Law of God and for Gentiles sins were condemned by natural law and conscience (Rom 2:14-16). Notice the past tense verbs.

 

Rom 7:6 But now we are delivered from the law, that being dead wherein we were held; that we should serve in newness of spirit, and not in the oldness of the letter

 

"We" is still both Jews and Gentiles. "The law" is still "God's revelation of his righteous standards." Notice the tense of the verbs. "Are delivered" is Greek aorist passive which means "have been delivered." Believers are "dead" in Christ. The "law" principle cannot tell a dead person what to do! Believers now are serving God in the "newness of the spirit" of law.

 

Rom 7:7 What shall we say then? Is the law sin? God forbid. Nay, I had not known sin, but by [---] law: for I had not known lust, except the law had said, Thou shalt not covet.

 

The principle of law to condemn both Jews and Gentiles was neither sin nor bad. Up until Paul was saved the law principle was the revealer of sin. Notice the past tense.

 

Rom 7:8 But sin, taking occasion by the commandment, wrought [produced] in me all manner of concupiscence [evil desire]. For without [---] law sin was dead.

 

Up until now Paul was not aware of his sin except through the law principle. Notice the past tense verbs.

 

Rom 7:9 For I was alive without [---] law once: but when the commandment came, sin revived, and I died.

 

Up until now the law principle fulfilled its purpose by convicting Paul of his sin. Notice the past tense.

 

7:10 And the commandment, which was ordained to life, I found to be unto death.

11 For sin, taking occasion by the commandment, deceived me, and by it slew me.

 

Faithfully obeying all 613 commandments of God would guarantee God's blessings. However failure to obey all 613 of them guaranteed God's curse. As a former Pharisee, self-righteous Paul did not realize the underlying eternal spiritual nature of God's righteous standards. Past tense verbs.

 

7:12 Wherefore the law is holy, and the commandment holy, and just, and good.

 

Paul, a convicted Jew, would say this about the formal Law. There is nothing wrong with the law principle. It is still effective for those who have not heard the gospel to condemn them (1 Tim 1:9).  However, the current standard of God's righteousness is found solely in the person of Jesus Christ per Romans 3:21-26; Jn 14:6; 16:8-9).

 

"For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who hold the truth in unrighteousness; Because that which may be known of God is manifest in them; for God hath shewed it unto them." Rom 1:18-19. Present tense verbs.

 

And a convicted Gentile would say this about the law of nature and conscience (to a much lesser degree).

 

7:13 Was then that which is good made death unto me? God forbid. But sin, that it might appear sin, working death in me by that which is good; that sin by the commandment might become exceeding sinful.

 

The verb gegone is perfect tense for "has become." The law principle did all that it could do -- it killed Paul in his sin.

 

7:14 For we know that the law is spiritual: but I am carnal, sold under sin.

 

"We" includes both Jew and Gentile. "The law" is "God's revelation of his righteous standards." Paul finally saw himself as condemned by the law principle.

 

7:15 For that which I do I allow not: for what I would, that do I not; but what I hate, that do I.

 

By himself Paul cannot live up to the righteousness the law principle demanded.

 

7:16 If then I do that which I would not, I consent unto [---] law that it is good.

 

Paul is clearly using "law" here to refer to something beyond the 613 commandments of the formal Law. The law principle is good but it cannot save.

 

7:17 Now then it is no more I that do it, but sin that dwelleth in me.

 

"Sin" itself is a "principle" in opposition to the "law" principle.

 

7:18 For I know that in me (that is, in my flesh,) dwelleth no good thing: for to will [thelo] is present with me; but how to perform that which is good I find not.

7:19 For the good that I would [thelo] I do not: but the evil which I would not, that I do.

 

The principle of "willpower" is unable to defeat the principle of "sin" which has its power in the principle of "law."

 

7:20 Now if I do that I would (will) not, it is no more I that do it, but sin that dwelleth in me.

 

Paul cannot "will" himself not to sin. The principle of "will-power" is subservient to the principle of "sin."

 

7:21 I find then [THE] law, that, when I would (will to) do good, evil is present with me. [not "a"]

 

There is a definite article in the Greek. "The law" very clearly means "the principle of law." The principle of "will-power" is weaker than the power of the principle of "sin."

 

7:22 For I delight in the law of God after the inward man:

 

Paul's weak will-power delights in the principle of "law" as "God's revelation of His righteous standards" both to Jews and Gentiles. Looking at the next verse (23) "the law of God" is "the law of my mind." Compare to Hebrews 8:10.

 

7:23 But I see another law in my members, warring against the law of my mind, and bringing me into captivity to the law of sin which is in my members.

 

"Another law" is another "principle." The "law of my mind" is the principle of "will-power" which wants to obey what God has revealed. "The law of sin" is "flesh" which wants to disobey God.

 

7:24 O wretched man that I am! who shall deliver me from the body of this death?

 

The answer to the dilemma is found in a "who" and not a "what."

 

7:25 I thank God through Jesus Christ our Lord. So then with the mind I myself serve [---] law of God; but with the flesh [---] law of sin.

 

The answer is neither the formal Law of God nor the weak principle of natural law and conscience of the Gentiles. The answer is Jesus Christ.

 

Paul has learned to yield his weak will-power of the mind to faith in Jesus Christ.

 

"But now the righteousness of God without the law is manifested, being witnessed by the law and the prophets; Even the righteousness of God which is by faith of Jesus Christ unto all and upon all them that believe: for there is no difference." Romans 3:21-22.

 

By replacing the righteous standard of the law with the righteous standard of Jesus Christ, Paul can finally obey God through the (new covenant) standard of Christ's righteousness.

 

Rom 8:1 There is therefore now no condemnation to them which are in Christ Jesus, who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit.

 

Believers who are "in Christ" are no longer condemned by either the law principles found in Moses, natural law or the conscience. Neither are they condemned by the condemnation of indwelling sin. 

 

8:2 For the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus hath made me free from the law of sin and death.

 

"The law" is "the principle" that imputed "life in Christ" through faith has finally overcome the previous principles at work. The new covenant principle of faith in Christ grasps the imputed righteousness of Christ as God's new standard.

 

8:3 For what the law could not do, in that it was weak through the flesh, God sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh, and for sin, condemned sin in the flesh:

 

"The law" is "God's standard of righteous judgment." For Jews this was God's formal written law. For Gentiles it was cloudy nature and conscience. In Christ God accomplished what the law could not accomplish. Note the verb tenses.

 

8:4 That the righteousness of the law might be fulfilled in us, who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit.

…..

8:7 Because the carnal mind is enmity against God: for it is not subject to the law of God, neither indeed can be.

 

John 14:6 I am the way, the truth, and the life: no man cometh unto the Father, but by me.

 

Heb 1:1-2 God, who at sundry times and in divers manners spake in time past unto the fathers by the prophets, Hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son…

 

The righteous requirements of the law have been replaced by Christ's imputed righteousness per Romans 3:21-25.

 

Rom 9:4 Who are Israelites; to whom pertaineth the adoption, and the glory, and the covenants, and the giving of the law, and the service of God, and the promises.

 

"The law" is the formal "Law of God" as given through Moses, the Old Covenant with all 613 commandments.

 

9:30 What shall we say then? That the Gentiles, which followed not after righteousness, have attained to righteousness, even the righteousness which is of faith.

 

Gentiles who did not have the righteous standard of the formal Law have attained that righteousness, not by obedience to the law, but through faith which is the "law" or "principle" of the new covenant.

 

9:31 But Israel, which followed after [---] law of righteousness, hath not attained to [---] law of righteousness.

 

There are no articles in the Greek. A new wording, a law, a "principle" of "righteousness" is in view.

 

9:32 Wherefore? Because they sought it not by faith, but as it were by the works of [---] law. For they stumbled at that stumbling-stone;

 

9:33 As it is written, Behold, I lay in Sion a stumbling-stone and rock of offence: and whosoever believeth on him shall not be ashamed.

 

Even prophecy said that obedience the law would be replaced by faith in Christ.

 

Rom 10:3 For they being ignorant of God's righteousness, and going about to establish their own righteousness, have not submitted themselves unto the righteousness of God.

10:4 For Christ is the end of [---] law for righteousness to every one that believeth.

 

This is important. There is no article "the." Christ is the "end" or "goal" of "law" as a principle. The purpose of law has been reached through the principle of "faith."

 

10:5 For Moses describeth the righteousness which is of the law, That the man which doeth those things shall live by them.

 

Trying to obey God through obedience to the formal Law was a delusion to Israel.

 

10:6 But the righteousness which is of faith speaketh on this wise, Say not in thine heart, Who shall ascend into heaven? (that is, to bring Christ down from above:)

10:7 Or, Who shall descend into the deep? (that is, to bring up Christ again from the dead.)

10:8 But what saith it? The word is nigh thee, even in thy mouth, and in thy heart: that is, the word of faith, which we preach.

 

These three texts are a play on Deuteronomy 30:12-14. Paul replaced the "law" with "Christ" and "faith."

 

"And when he is come, he will reprove the world of sin, and of righteousness, and of judgment: Of sin, because they believe not on me" John 16:8-9.

 

"Law" is no longer either the principle which defines sin for believers nor the standard of God's judgment.

 

Rom 13:8 Owe no man any thing, but to love one another: for he that loveth another hath fulfilled [---] law.

 

What law, what principle? -- the principle of "loving one another." There is no Greek article.

 

13:9 For this, Thou shalt not commit adultery, Thou shalt not kill, Thou shalt not steal, Thou shalt not bear false witness, Thou shalt not covet; and if there be any other commandment, it is briefly comprehended in this saying, namely, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.

 

Paul is teaching that Leviticus 19:18 is a royal principle of love which "comprehends" or "sums up" the second half of the Ten Commandments. Rather than elevating the formal Law or even the Ten Commandments, the principle ("law") of love is greater than the others.

 

13:10 Love worketh no ill to his neighbour: therefore love is the fulfilling of [---] law.

 

While the "law" principle made sin more sinful, the "love" principle fulfills or "fills full" the purpose of "law" which law could not achieve.

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